?ˉs territory slopes down from the southwest to the northeast. Its southwest is mountainous, with the average height of 800 meters above sea level. Most of the province?ˉs mountains with a height of over 1,500 meters are found in this area. Huangmaojian in Longquan County, 1,929 meters above sea level, is the highest peak of the province. The middle part of Zhejiang
is a hilly area, scattered with many large and small basins. The northeastern part is a low and flat alluvial plain covered with a thick layer of fertile soil and crisscrossed with waterways. The mountain ranges stretch towards the East China Sea, forming many peninsulas and islands.Zhejiang
Province covers a total land area of 101,800 square kilometers, of which 70.4 percent is mountainous region; 23.2 percent is plain; and rest 6.4 percent is covered by rivers and lakes. According to the statistics made in the end of 1999, the province has 1.609 million hectares of cultivated land and 6.3966 million hectares of forests. Stored in the forests, which cover up 54.6 percent of the province?ˉs total land, are 127 million cubic meters living timber.
Province has a sub-tropical monsoon climate, with the clear division of four seasons and abundant sunshine. The average annual temperature is 15??C - 18??C and the average annual precipitation is 1,200-1,800 mm. Its rainy season is from May to June; its coldest and hottest days are seen in January and July respectively.Natural resources:
A rich reserve of more than 100 minerals is found in Zhejiang
, including 12 non-metallic ones ranking among the top three in China in terms of the amount of reserve. Its reserves of stone coal, alunite, pyrophyllite, limestone for cement-making and limestone for construction rank the first in the country; fluorite occupies the second place in China and diatomite, the third. The reserves of silica, pearlite, granite, zeolite, silver, zinc, vanadium and cadmium all rank among the country?ˉs top tens.Zhejiang
Province has a total coastline (including island lines) of 6,486 kilometers, with a total domestic sea area of 30,900 square kilometers. Zhejiang
is the China?ˉs largest in-shore fishery, with 400 square kilometers of shallow sea and 2,886 square meters of low beach for aquiculture. In addition, the continental shelf of the East China Sea is rich in petroleum and natural gas.Zhejiang
is famed as "a treasure house of plants in southeastern China." with a high forest-coverage rate, the province has as many as 3,800 species of plants. Among these, gingko and more than 50 others have listed in the Directory of Rare Plants under State Protection. There are more than 1,900 species of wild animals in the province, 120 of which being listed as first or second grade of wild animals under state protection, making up one third of the country?ˉs total protected rare animals.
The continental shelf rich in petroleum and natural gas resources has very good prospect for exploitation. The province?ˉs water resources total 93.7 billion cubic meters, ranking the fourth in China by per unit area.
is one of the birthplaces of the Chinese civilization. As early as in the Old Stone Age about 50,000 years ago, the primitive Jiande Man lived in the mountainous western region of the province. During the New Stone Age of about 7,000 to 4,000 years ago, human activities extended to a wider area, leaving more than 100 cultural sites in the area, including those belonging to the Hemudu Culture (about 6,000 to 7,000 years ago), the Majiabang Culture (about 6000 to 6000 years ago) and the Liangzhu Culture (about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago). Among the large amount of cultural relics found in the Yuyao Hemudu Cultural Site, are all types of farming and daily life utensils made of bones, stone, pottery and wood; grains; wooden parts of house-structures; colorful lacquer bowls and bone whistles that can still produce beautiful music now. All these are the evidence that the ancestors of the Chinese people created the magnificent prehistoric civilization as early as 7,000 years ago. During the 12th and 13th century, Hangzhou served as the Southern Song Dynasty?ˉs capital for about 150 years. In the 14th century, along with the designation of its border, ?°Zhejiang
?± became the formal name of the province. In China?ˉs history, Zhejiang
Province was famous for its developed farming skills and handicrafts. It led the country in industries such as silk, porcelain, papermaking, printing and shipbuilding.Zhejiang
is a favored tourist destination. It has 11 state-level scenic areas, including the West Lake, Fuchun River, Xin?ˉan River, Thousand-islet Lake, Mount Yantang, Nanxi River, Mount Putuo, the Shengsi Islands, Mount Tiantai, Mount Mognan, Mount Xuedou, Twin-Dragon Cave and Mount Xiandu, in addition to its 35 province-level scenic spots. The Hangzhou Rive is a national holiday resort, and 10 other resorts, including Xianghu Lake in Xiaoshan, Oujiang River in Wenzhou and Mount Huiji in Shaoxing, are of provincial level. The Surging Qiantang Tides, a unique natural view, attracts numerous visitors from both home and abroad each year.
According to estimates based on a random survey, the province had some 79.54 million permanent residents by the end of 2003, a year-on-year increase of 956,400. The birth rate was 13.66?? (up 0.37), death rate was 5.31?? (up 0.23) resulting in a natural growth rate of 8.35?? (up 0.14).
Fifty-three different ethnic groups live together in the province, with members of ethnic minority groups accounting for 0.7 percent of the Population
. The main minority ethnic groups are the Zhuang, Yao, She, Hui and Manchu.
The year 2003 saw some 27,900 graduate students enroll in the province?ˉs universities and research institutes (up 29.6 percent on the previous year) and this figure included 11,600 new entrants (up 33 percent). 587,800 undergraduates enrolled in general universities (up 25.7 percent), including 225,800 new entrants (up 28.2 percent). 630,800 students enrolled in the various secondary vocational schools (up 3.1 percent), including 233,300 new entrants (up 7.0 percent). 1.137 million enrolled in the general senior secondary schools and 240,000 in the various secondary technical schools.
The 4.32 million students who enrolled in junior secondary schools meant the enrollment rate in that part of the educational system had reached 100 percent. The retention rate for students over their three years at junior secondary was 92.9 percent.
About 10.25 million pupils enrolled in primary schools representing a 99.5 percent enrollment rate and there was 100 percent retention over the five years of primary schooling.
Sea Ports: About 300 kilometers of Zhejiang
's coastline in Province are good for building deep-water harbors. With the ports in Ningbo, Zhoushan, Zhapu, Haimen and Wenzhou as the mainstay, Zhejiang
has 34 sea ports, offering 44 docks for ships of more than 10,000 tons, with an annual handling capacity of 270 tons. Zhejiang
Province has established transporting relationship with 400 harbors in more than 70 countries and regions in the world and has opened scheduled passenger lines between Zhejiang
and the United States, Japan and the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region. Beicang Port in Ningbo, one of China's four major entrepot sea ports, can serve ships of 300,000 tons. It is the largest and best iron ore entreport in China. Zhoushan Port has become one of the nation's largest harbors; Qiaoshan of Zhoushan, with the shipping capacity of super oil tanks of 250,000 tons, is the largest oil transferring harbor in China.Railways:
With the provincial capital Hangzhou as the core, Zhejiang
's railway network totals 1,185 km in length. It includes three double-track railways (Hangzhou-Shanghai
Railway and Hangzhou-Ningbo Railway) and two trunk railways (Hangzhou-Xuancheng Railway and Jinhua-Wenzhou Railway).Highways:
With a total mileage of 42,000 km, Zhejiang
's highway network is composed of six state highways and 66 provincial highways, of which 2,000 km are of high grade, and 770 km are expressways. The expressways of Shanghai
-Hangzhou-Ningbo and Shangyu-Sanmen have open to traffic, and the Ningbo-Taizhou-Wenzhou, Hangzhou-Jinhua-Quzhou, Hangzhou-Nanjing and Jinhua-Lishui-Wenzhou expressways are under construction, with some sections of them having been open to traffic already. By 2002, the expressways in Zhejiang
Province will stretch over 1,000 km to form a network with Hangzhou at the center. By then it will take no more than four hours to reach any city within the province from the provincial capital. Airports: Zhejiang
Province has seven airports, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Huangyan, Yiwu, Quzhou and Zhoushan, which operate 160 domestic or international air routes. The Xiaoshan Airport in Hangzhou City has been just completed and put into operation.
River routes: The province has 10,400 km of river routes, ranking the third in the country, with 10 trunk water routes totaling 1,230 km and 105 harbors. Its annual cargo handling capacity is 210 million tons.