The central part of the province is a mountainous highland, with the summit of Mount Taishan, 1,545 meters above sea level, being the highest point. Most hills distributed in its eastern part are at the altitude of 500 meters and lower. Plains lying in its west and north are mostly below 50 meters in elevation. The lowest area of the province is the Yellow River Delta, which is generally 2-10 meters above sea level.Shandong
?ˉs topography is complicated and interwoven with nine types of landform, including plains, basins, hills, terraces, deltas and mountains. Mountainous area and plains account for 15.5 percent and 55 percent of the province?ˉs territory, while hilly areas are of 13.2 percent, and rivers and lakes, 1.1 percent.
The province has a warm temperate monsoon climate with most rainfall concentrated in the hot summer. It has short spring and autumn but long winter and summer. The mean temperatures in a year are 11-14 ??C. The annual average rainfall is between 550-950 mm. Natural calamities occur often.Natural resources:
Mainly relying on rainfall, the province?ˉs water resource is in scarcity, with only 520 cubic meters of water available for each of its residents, accounting for 18.8 percent of the national average of 2,770 cubic meters per head. For the time being, the water-supply ability of the province is 19.224 billion cubic meters, including 7.844 billion cubic meters of surface water, 5.88 billion cubic meters of underground water and 5.5 billion cubic meters diverted from the Yellow River. When 75 percent of the supply is guaranteed, the province will have 6.4 cubic meters of surface water, 5.2 cubic meters of underground water and 5.5 cubic meters of Yellow River water, a volume of 17.138 cubic meters in total.
A total of 128 varieties of minerals, 78 percent of that found in China, have been discovered in the province, of which 33 have their surveyed deposits listed among the top tens of the nation: gold, natural sulphur and gypsum rank the first; petroleum, diamond, magnesite, cobalt, hafnium, and granite are the second; and kali salt, graphite, talc, bentonite, and limestone are the third. In addition, the reserves of many other minerals, such as natural gas, iron, barite, diatomite, zircon, bauxite, and refractory clay are also very affluent.
There are more than 3,100 varieties of plant, including 645 of wide cash, growing in the province. Among the 450 species of wild land vertebrate animals (accounting for 21 percent of the nation?ˉs total), 55 are beasts, 362 are birds, eight are amphibians and 25 are reptiles. In addition, there are many species of land invertebrates, insects in particular, making the province rank No. 1 in the country in varieties of creatures in this category.
One of China?ˉs major agricultural production bases, Shandong
is known as ?°a warehouse of grains, cotton, and oil, and the land of fruits and aquatic products.?± It?ˉs also an important producer of wheat, cotton, peanut, tobacco, hemp, silkworms, traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and materials. The apples produced in Yantai, pears from Laiyang, peaches of Feicheng, and Leling?ˉs golden-threaded jujubes are all famous specialties.Shandong
is rich in marine resources too. Its offshore area makes up 37 percent of the total surface area of the Bohai and Yellow seas, with a shoal area accounting for 15 percent of the nation?ˉs total. There are about 260 species of fish and prawn in its seas, including more than 40 major cash species of fish and 100 species of shellfish. Shangdong leads the country in the production of prawns, shellfishes, abalones, sea slugs and urchins. Meanwhile, with many large and medium-sized salt works, the province is also one of China?ˉs four major salt producers. In its 266,000 hectare of freshwaters, there are more than 40 species of freshwater plants and more than 70 species of fish.
The province is one of China?ˉs important energy bases, with Shengli Oilfield being the second largest of its kind in the country, and Zhongyuan, another oilfield, having a major part on its territory. The crude oil produced in Shandong
makes up one-third of the nation?ˉs total. The province has 50,000 square kilometers of coalfields and its Yanteng Coalmine is one of the nation?ˉs 10 major coal production bases. The province has a rich electricity resource. The Shandong
power network is the only one of the country?ˉs six major power networks that is operated separately on a provincial basis.
With beautiful natural landscapes and numerous historical and cultural relics, Shangdong has rich tourist resources. It offers a string of tourist attractions, such as Mount Taishan and the Temple, Mansion and Cemetery of Confucius, two World Heritage sites; Lingzi, capital of the ancient Qi State; Penglai, the well known ?°fairyland on earth?±; Mount Laoshan, a sacred land of Taoism; Weifang, the ?°world capital of kites?±; Qingdao, a charming coastal city famous for its annual International Beer Fair; Yantai, known worldwide as a wine producer; Rongcheng, a place considered as ?°the edge of the world?± by ancient Chinese; Jinan, the provincial capital honored as ?°the city of springs?±; and the site for watching the wonderful scene of the torrential Yellow River running into the sea.
According to statistics of the fifth national census, the total Population
of the province was 90.79 million. The ratio of male Population
against female was basically balanced.
Male: 45.96 million, 50.63 percent of the total;
Female: 44.83 million, 49.37 percent.Population
Compared with the figure of 84.39 million out of the fourth national census made in 1990, the Population
has increased 6.40 million. The birth rate was 10.75 per thousand while the mortality was 6.29 per thousand, making up a natural growth rate of 4.46 per thousand. The Population
growth rate had been stabilized at about 5 per thousand for nine years.
There are 54 ethnic groups, including the Han, Manchu, Zhuang, Korean, Miao, Tibet
an, Yi, Yao, and Bai. The Han Population
is 90.17 million, accounting for 99.32 percent of the province?ˉs total. The Population
of various minority ethnic groups is 620,000, accounting for 0.68 percent of the total.
The number of those who have a college educational background is 3.0244 million, accounting for 3.33 percent of the total Population
; the number of those who have received high school (including vocational school) education is 10.02 million, accounting for 11.04 percent and that of those who have junior high school education is 33.26 million, 36.6 percent of the total; that of those who have primary education is 29.72 million, 32.7 percent. The number of illiterate (including those at the age of 15 or above cannot read or just read a little) is 7.6798 million.
The province is well known in the country for its highways, both in quantity and quality. Shandong
is among the top provinces in the country that have built their highways with the longest mileage and the most density. So far, it has more than 50,000 km of highways, including 14 state highways totaling 4,395 km, 12,787 km provincial highways, 17,378 county highways and 19,786 km township roads. The highway density is 36.5 km per 100 square kilometers. In 2002, a total of 2,266 km expressways are in operation, making Shandong
the No. 1 in the country in this respect.Railways:
The province has a complete railway network. The Beijing
-Kowloon railways run north-south across the province and the Qingdao-Jinan and Rizhao-Shiyan railways traverse it from east to west. Through the Beijing
-Kowloon Railway, one can reach Hong Kong
by train. Rizhao, the port city at the east end of the Rizhao-Shiyan Railway, has been designated by the state as one of the terminus stations on the new Asia-Europe transportation line. So far, the total length of provincial railways is more than 300 km, accounting for 11.5 percent of the railways operating in the province, ranking the sixth in the country?ˉs 25 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions who have their own local railways.
Civil aviation has developed rapidly in the province. There are nine airports, including the ones of Jinan and Qingdao which serve as international airdromes and that of Yantai, an airport for international freight. Shandong
has direct flights to Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong
. The Shandong
Airlines now has 36 airplanes of various models, including Boeing¨C737, Challenger-200, Saab?a340 and others such as amphibious airplanes. It has 500 flights taking off each week.