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Liaoning China


The coastline of Liaoning Province is 2,178 kilometers long - nearly 12 percent of China's total. The hilly regions in east Liaoning are the main area for forest. Adjoining the long, narrow costal plains (usually called the Liaoxi Corridor) is the main road for Northeast China, linking with North China. Liaohe Plain in Central Liaoning, as a part of the Northeastern China Plain, has sedimentary deposits from the Liaohe River and other tributaries. The plain has abundant water and fertile soil, and is the main farming area and commodity grain base in Liaoning Province.


Liaoning Province has a continental monsoon climate with distinct seasonal variations. It has an annual rainfall of 714.9 mm, annual average temperature of 40C - 100C with a frost-free period of 140-200 days.

Water resources

There are 392 rivers of a total length of 160,000 kilometers with a drainage area of 145,000 sq. km in Liaoning Province. Liaohe River, one of the seven longest rivers in China, is 512 kilometers long and has a drainage area of 69,000 in the province. The average runoff of rivers in Liaoning has reached 32.5 billion cubic meters, or a 223 mm runoff depth. The province has a total water resource of 36.3 billion cubic meters.

Liaoning has plentiful fishing resources with its marine life area ranking second in China.


Nearly 115 minerals have been found in Liaoning, and reserves of 64 minerals have been located. Its reserves of minerals such as iron, boron, magnesite, diamonds and talcum are some of the largest deposits in China.

Liaohe Oil Field is the third largest oil and natural gas field in China. Its reserves of oil and natural gas account for 15 percent and 10 percent of the country's total.

Biological resources

Liaoning Province has a total forestry area of 4.185 million hectares, with 28.7 percent forest cover. It also has a lot of fruit trees. It has the third largest total area of fruit in the defoliated zone and the second largest production in the area.

Tourist resources

Liaoning has over 11,300 cultural remains, including 19 national-level key protection units and 159 provincial-level key protection units. There are 7 state-class natural reserves and 7 provincial-class natural reserves.

Recently, the province put forward many cultural tourism items e.g. steam engine tours, recovery tours, ancient tours and business tours. Some of the folk festivals now attract the attention of both domestic and foreign visitors such as the Dalian Costume Festival.
Environmental protection

In 2003, among the 14 cities under the environment monitoring program, the air quality of seven cities met the standard of Grade 2, six cities met the standard of Grade 3, and only one city failed to meet Grade 3 standard. Among the 14 cities under the road noise monitoring program, the cities suffering severe noise pollution accounted for 7.1 percent, or down by 7.1 percentage points over the previous year.

By the end of 2003, there were 20 national eco-demonstration zones in the province. The 81 nature reserves cover a total area of 2.85 million hectares, accounting for 9.7 percent of the total provincial land area.

Total Population: 42.1 million (2003)

The year 2003 saw 290,000 births, with a crude birth rate of 6.90 per thousand, and 245,000 deaths, with a crude death rate of 5.83 per thousand. The net growth of Population in 2003 was 70,000.

Natural growth rate: 1.07 per thousand in 2003.

Life expectancy

The average life expectancy in the province has risen to 72.09 years. The life expectancy of males is 70.55 while females are 73.85 years old.


Liaoning Province has 44 ethnic groups including Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui, Korean and Xibe. Minority Population is 6.55 million, accounting for 16 percent of the province?ˉs total. There are 5 minorities with Population exceeding 10,000: Manchu, Mongol, Hui, Korean and Xibe. In addition, the Population of the Zhuang, Miao, Tujia, Dawo?ˉer and Yi ethnic groups is also comparatively large.


At the end of 2003, there were 514,000 undergraduates enrolled in 69 general universities, including 164,000 new entrants. A total of 602,000 students studied in 456 senior high schools and 1.81 million students studied in 1,885 junior high schools. The attendance rate of the children of junior high school age was 99.6 percent, up by 0.3 percentage points over the previous year. Pupils enrolled in 11,339 primary schools numbered 2.89 million, including 433,000 new entrants. The attendance rate of primary school-aged children was 99.7 percent, up by 0.3 percentage points over the previous year. There were 8,429 students enrolled in special education schools.

Unemployment rate: 6.7 percent (2003)


The province had over 3,939 kilometers of railway open to traffic at the end of 2003, up by 11 percent over the previous year. The electrified railways totaled 1,050 kilometers in length, rose by 79.8 percent.


Liaoning has a total highway network of 50,095 kilometers, including 1,637 kilometers of expressway.


The province has 6 airports linking over 100 cities with both domestic and foreign countries, and regions, such as Japan, Russia, Republic of Korea (ROK) and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR).
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